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Prince’s Research Excerpts: Priesthood & Mormonism – 1868

Below you will find Prince’s research excerpts titled, “Priesthood, 1868.” You can view other years here.

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1868:  27 Jan.:  One office officiating in another.

“I attended the school of the Prophets.  Many remarks were made upon the order of the Priesthood.  Presidet Young:

A man being ordained to the High Priesthood does not deprive him of any office which he held before.  I have a right to officiate as a priest teacher or Deacon.  Presidets of the seventies might act as Bishops Councellors or act as High Councillor without Being ordained a High Priest.”

(Wilford Woodruff diary, 27 Jan., 1868)

23 Feb.:  John Taylor set apart as Probate Judge.

“I met with the Presidency & Twelve for Prayer.  We laid hands upon John Taylor, & Presidet Young set him apart as Probate Judge for Utah County.”  (Wilford Woodruff diary, 23 Feb., 1868)

25 Mar.:  Work of the Female Relief Societies.


The organization of Female Relief Societies in the various Wards of the city has been attended, so far as we have been able to learn, by the best of effects.  The ladies have entered upon the duties assigned them in relieving the poor with spirit and alacrity, and they have accomplished an amount of good that must be very gratifying to the Bishops and other leading men in the Wards.  The movement has been a most timely one; a class of help has been brought into use that is admirably fitted for the labor, and which only needed the call from the proper quarter to render most efficient service.  These Societies, with proper management, and under good guidance, can be made the means of accomplishing an incalculable amount of good.  They are auxiliaries which the Bishops can use most effectively in caring for the poor.

. . . .

There is a great field of usefulness opening up before these Societies, and we sincerely hope that they will not fail to avail themselves of the opportunities they now have of doing good.  It is not the sustaining alone of the poor that should occupy their attention; but measures should be taken immediately to teach the poor and to provide them with means to sustain themselves.  Time is money.  The time of the poor should not be allowed to pass away unimproved.  To sustain the poor in idleness is to foster vice and to breed a race of paupers that will be a sore burden to the body politic.  But let the poor–men, women and children–be provided with work; let them be taught industrious habits; let them be furnished with employment suited to their strength and capacity, and they can nearly, if not entirely, sustain themselves.  By this means they will preserve their independence of feeling, and not sink into that condition of abject helplessness that is too much the characteristic of the poor in other countries.

. . . .

Here is a field ample enough to afford scope sufficient to the most ambitious, and we trust that our Female Relief Societies, under the guidance of the Bishops, will avail themselves of the opportunities they now have within their reach.  They can materially contribute in this manner to the independence of Zion.”  (Editorial, George Q. Cannon, editor; DN 17(7):52, 25 Mar., 1868)

29 Mar.:  Children born in Priesthood are heirs.

“Our children who are born in the Priesthood are legal heirs, and entitled to the revelations of the Lord, and as the Lord lives, his angels have charge over them, though they may be left to themselves occasionally.  We should learn our own nature, and live worthy of our being.  When Jesus Christ was left to himself, in His darkest hour, he faltered not, but overcame.  He was ordained to this work.  If we should ever be left to ourselves, and the Spirit withdrawn from us, it will be to try the strength of our integrity and faithfulness, to see whether we will walk in His ways even in a dark and cloudy hour.  At times our children may not be in possession of a good spirit, but if the parent continues to possess the good spirit, the children will have the bad spirit but a short time.  Parents who are Latter-day Saints are the ruling power; they are the kings and queens.  Rule in righteousness, and in the fear and love of God, and your children will follow you.”  (Brigham Young, 29 Mar., 1868; JD 12:174)

1 Apr.:  Ezra Carter ordained HP on baptismal day.

“We have just heard of the death of Father Ezra Carter of Scarboro, Maine. . . . He visited me and my family at Cambridgeport, and on the 22nd day of March, 1849, I baptized him into the New and Everlasting Covenant and ordained him a High Priest.”  (W. Woodruff to George Q. Cannon, editor; DN 17(8):59, 1 Apr., 1868)

22 Apr.:  E. R. Snow on the Relief Society.

“This is the name of a Society which was organized in Nauvoo, on the 17th of March, 1842, by President Joseph Smith, assisted by Elders Willard Richards and John Taylor.  Although the name may be of modern date, the institution is of ancient origin.  We were told by our martyred prophet, that the same organization existed in the church anciently, allusions to which are made in some of the epistles recorded in the New Testament, making used of the title, ‘elect lady.’

This is an organization that cannot exist without the Priesthood, from the fact that it derives all its authority and influence from that source.  When the Priesthood was taken from the earth, this institution as well as every other appendage to the true order of the church of Jesus Christ on the earth, became extinct, and had never been restored until the time referred to above.

Last winter President Young instructed the Bishops to organize Female Relief Societies in their various Wards, and at our last Conference repeated the requisition, extending it to all the settlements, calling upon the sisters to enter into organizations, not only for the relief of the poor, but for the accomplishment of every good and noble work.  He urged upon them the manufacture of articles made of straw–the cultivation of silk, and the establishing of fashions that would be becoming–such as would be worthy the patronage of sensible, refined and intelligent women who stand, as we in reality do, at the head of the world.

Having been present at the organization of the ‘Female Relief Society of Nauvoo,’ and having now in my possession the minutes of the organization and the records of that Society, which is a sample for all others, and also having had considerable experience in that association, perhaps I may communicate a few hints that will assist the daughters of Zion in stepping forth in this very important position, which is replete with new and multiplied responsibilities.  If any of the daughters and mothers in Israel are feeling in the least circumscribed in their present spheres, they will now find ample scope for every power and capability for doing good with which they are most liberally endowed.

‘The Female Relief Society of Nauvoo,’ was organized after the pattern of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, with a Presidentess, who chose two Counselors.  These were ordained and set apart by the Priesthood, and were to fill those offices so long as they faithfully discharged the trust committed to them.  This quorum was fully authorized to appoint such officers, committees and asistants as were requisite from time to time, either to fill permanent offices or to perform any temporary agency that circumstances might demand.  But, to make these appointments legal they had to be sanctioned by vote of the majority of the meeting when such appointments were made.

In organizing Societies, it is necessary to have a competent Secretary and Treasurer–these and all other officers must be nominated, and the nomination must be seconded, and then a vote of the House called, with opportunity for any to object, if they should feel disposed.

President Joseph Smith told the sisters that he not only wanted them to learn to do business, but he wanted them to learn to do it correctly and in a business-like manner.  He set the example, and kindly proffered his instructions, not only through the Presidentess, but often met with the Society and gave much wise counsel and precious instruction and encouragement–copies of which are carefully preserved.

. . . .

Through the authority which President Young has conferred upon the Bishops, they now stand in the same relation with the Societies which have been, and are now about to be organized in the wards and settlements, as President Joseph Smith did with the one in Nauvoo.  No Society can overstep the counsel of its Bishop–his word is law, to which, all its doings are amenable.

Should the question arise in the mind, of any, What is the object of the Female Relief Society? I sould reply–to do good–to bring into requisition every capacity we possess for doing good, not only in relieving the poor but in saving souls.  United effort will accomplish incalculably more than can be accomplished by the most effective individual energies.

As its name indicates, the first grand object of the Society is to seek out, and relieve the wants of the poor.  President Smith, in giving instruction to the Society in Nauvoo, said that the sisters could much better look into, and understand the circumstances of destitute families, than the brethren; and as they were more sympathetic in their natures, they could better enter into the feelings of the afflicted, and administer aid and consolation.

Relieving the poor, in most of instances, requires something beyond administering to present necessities.  When giving, encourages people in idleness, it has a demoralizing tendency.  The sick must be provided for: but to those who have strength to labor, it is far more charitable to give employment and so direct their energies that they can earn what they need, and thus realize the fruits of their own labors.  President Joseph Smith proposed deeding a city lot to the Society in Nauvoo, on which we purposed building comfortable houses for homes for the homeless, sick and destitute, and furnish such varieties of remunerative labor as would be adapted to the strength and capacities of such as were able to work.  But the sudden death of the Prophet, and subsequent expulsion from Nauvoo, blasted all these fond anticipations, and instead of the generous pleasure of providing and superintending homes for others, we were ourselves homeless until we found an abiding place in the lone wilderness.  Although the existence of the Society was short, it accomplished much.  During one extremely severe winter, in particular, it was instrumental, through the blessing of God, in preserving the lives of many who, otherwise, must have perished.

The climate of Nauvoo was a very sickly one, it was a climate in which none but a people of faith and righteousness could prosper.  The location was beautiful and very desirable, but, in consequence of its unhealthfulness it had been abandoned, by those who had from time to time tried the experiment, as a place that could not be built up.  We had been expelled from Missouri, and in our transit subjected to great hardships and exposures, and our systems were more predisposed to sickness than they would have been under more favorable circumstances, and with all the faith we could exercise, we experienced much sickness.  In consequence of this, in connexion with other adverse circumstances, many were unable to obtain those comforts that nature required.

Previous to the organization of the Relief Society, President Smith said that the sisters, by relieving the Bishops and Elders of the care of the poor, would perform a very important work, and be instrumental in doing much good by liberating their hands so that they might devote their time and energies to other labors; he said that such an organization belonged to, and should exist in the Church–that he had long had it on his mind, but had been too much crowded with other duties to attend to it.

The care of the poor was a prominent item in the teachings of the Savior, and it always stands prominently forth among the requirements of our holy religion; and the business of caring for, and attending to the wants of the poor, was a heavy tax on the time as well as on the means of the authorities of the Church, in addition to all the cares and labors incident on commencing settlements in new locations.

In administering to the poor, the Female Relief Society has other duties to perform than merely relieving bodily wants.  Poverty of mind and sickness of heart, also demand attention; and many times a kind expression–a few words of counsel, or even a warm and affectionate shake of the hand will do more good and be better appreciated than a purse of gold.

. . . .

It would required volumes in which to define the duties, privileges and responsibilities that come within the purview of the Society.  President Young has turned the key to a wide and extensive sphere of action and usefulness.  But, says one, Where are the means?  The means will accumulate.  Do not refuse anything that may be donated, from a shoestring, or patch, or a carpet rag, to an elegant house and lot with all the appurtenances thereof.  Go at it (under the direction of your bishop) coolly, deliberately, energetically, unitedly and prayerfully, and God will crown your efforts with success.”  (Eliza R. Snow, “Female Relief Society,” DN 17(11):81, 22 Apr., 1868)

3 May:  Officers of the Southern Mission.

“The General Authorities of the Church were sustained by unanimous vote, as were also the following local Authorities of this Southern Mission:

Erastus Snow, President of the Southern Mission.

Robert Gardner, Walter E. Dodge, James G. Bleak, Franklin B. Woolley, David H. Cannon, John O. Angus, Daniel D. McArthur, Taylor R. Bird, William Empey, Erastus W. McIntire, Samuel Miles and John R. Young members of the High Council.

William Fawcett, Local President of the High Priests Quorum.

Walter Granger, President of the Elders’ Quorum.

Robert Gardner, Bishop and Presiding High Priest of St. George Ward.

Ute Perkins, Bishop of 1st Ward of St. George.

Henry Eyring, Bishop of 2nd Ward St. George.

Daniel D. McArthur, Bishop of 3rd Ward St. George.

Robert Gardner Local Bishop of 4th Ward St. George.

Robert Covington, Bishop and Presiding High Priest of Washington Ward.

Joshua T. Willis, Bishop and Presiding High Priest of Toquerville Ward.

Edward Bunker, Bishop and Presiding High Priest of Santa Clara Ward.

Lorenzo W. Roundy, Bishop and Presiding High Priest of Kanarra Ward.

Wilson D. Pace, Bishop and Presiding High Priest of Harmony Ward.

William Snow, Bishop and Presiding High Priest of Pine Valley Ward.

Richard Robinson, Bishop and Presiding High Priest of Pinto Ward.

Alexander F. Barron, Bishop and Presiding High Priest Panaca Ward.

Meltiah Hatch, Bishop and Presiding High Priest of Eagleville Ward.

James Leithead, Bishop and Presiding High Priest of St. Thomas Ward.

Alma H. Bennett, Bishop and Presiding High Priest of St. Joseph Ward.

Henry Lunt, Bishop and Presiding High Priest of Cedar Ward.

The Bishops’ Counselors and Presiding Elders of the Southern Mission as they are sustained by their respective Bishops.

Erastus Snow, Robert Gardner and Franklin B. Woolley, Trustees for building the Meeting House at St. George.

Joseph W. Young, as fellow laborer to President Erastus Snow in the Southern Mission.

Henry Eyring, President of the Priests Quorum.

John Larson, President of the Teachers Quorum.

Ephraim Wilson, President of the Deacons Quorum.

James G. Bleak, as Clerk and Historian of the Southern Mission.

President Snow expressed his satisfaction with the labors of the Home Missionaries in the Southern settlements the past winter and spring and wished them to continue their labors, in public and private.”

(Southern Mission conference minutes, 3 May, 1868; JH 3 May, 1868)

6 May:  Bishops and their duties.

“The duties of a Bishop are most responsible and onerous and they embrace a very wide range.  Bishops are the leaders of the people, and are invested with a power that, if properly wielded, will bring about great and important results.  It has long been admitted in theory that a time would come when they would exercise much greater power and jurisdiction among the people than they have done in the past, or even than they do now.  But there has been a disposition manifested to postpone this time, and to view it as still very distant.  It is evident, however, to those who have reflected  carefully and watched the signs of the times, that there is a great necessity at the present for the Bishops to step forth and act in their calling and office in a manner almost entirely different to that which they have been in the habit of doing.

In our leading article yesterday we briefly hinted at some few things which should receive their attention. But the more this subject is examined the more plainly does it apear that there is an imperative necessity for the Bishops to devote more of their time and attention than they have been in the habit of doing to the care of their Wards.  Instead of spending a portion of their time in superintending the affairs which come within the purview of their office, they must devote the whole of it to these labors.  Instead of the duties of their calling claiming the time they can spare from the care of their families and business, it must receive their entire attention and occupy the first place in their thoughts, while their own business and the sustenance of themselves and families must be subordinate and be viewed as of comparatively minor importance.  For the twenty years that we have been in these valleys, God has been training us to bring us into such a condition of knowledge and obedience that this order can be carried out.

But, the question very naturally arises here, how can the Bishops do this?  If they neglect their own business, and do not take measures to provide for themselves and families, how are they to live?  President Young has already plainly answered these queries by saying that the Bishops must trust in God.  He who said to his disciples of old: ‘Take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on,’ and who has repeated the same words to his disciples in these days, adding that if they trust in Him they should not go hungry, neither athirst, is able to feed, clothe and supply all the wants of HIs servants who labor in His service in Zion as easily as He does the wants of those who engage in His ministry abroad.  His power is neither limited to one country, nor confined to one class.  The Bishops are assured that if they will place their business in the hands of their sons, or sons-in-law, or in the hands of other trustworthy individuals, and devote their entire time to the duties of their calling and the care of their wards, they shall not want.  They will even make property faster and have greater influence in every way than they have at present.  By relying upon the Lord, and exercising faith, they will find that they do not trust Him in vain.  The fowls of the air sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns, yet God feedeth them.  Are not the servants of God much better than they?  God knoweth what they need, and He will supply their wants.  It is His promise, and who can say that it ever failed?

In every ward in the Territory there is an extensive field of operations open before the Bishop who presides there.  The Bishops of some of the large Wards will find, even when they devote their entire time to their calling, that there is more requiring their attention than they can possible attend to.  There is no end to the ways in which a Bishop can help the people over whom he presides.  It is not in preaching and praying alone, (though very good at the proper seasons,) that they are required to spend their time; but in teaching the people how to live, how to employ their time and means to the best advantage.  The people require to be taught how to use, in the best manner, the elements with which they are surrounded.  They need oversignt and instruction respecting the proper method of cultivating the earth, making gardens, setting out orchards and shade trees, building houses, barns, corrals, and fences, constructing canals, water ditches, roads and side walks; also what kinds of grains and other seeds they should sow.  Those who are able to work at mechanical and other pursuits need counsel respecting their labor.

We cannot, in our brief space, touch upon one-hundredth part of the duties that naturally devolve upon the Bishops.  They will readily suggest themselves, however, to those who are familiar with the practical working of our system.  The labor of caring for the poor is of itself by no means inconsiderable.  When they are able to work they should be directed in such a manner as to become self-sustaining.  Every one who can labor should be furnished with employment.  There should be no idlers among us.  When we are properly organized, there will be no poor among us.  The Bishops will derive great help from the Female Relief Societies which they have organized in their Wards, in caring for and furnishing the poor with employment.  When the Bishops take the proper view of their duties, and apply themselves assiduously to the discharge of them in preference to everything else, a wonderful change in affairs through the Territory will speedily be perceptible.  In no way can their time, talents, and experience be better or more profitably used.  If wise Bishops had dictated matters in the manner sketched above for the past twelve months in the various Wards and settlements of this Territory, would there be any scarcity of breadstuffs in the country at the present time? or would men be standing still for want of employment?  All who understand matters must acknowledge that there would not.

At the present time some of the people may not see the necessity of hearkening to the counsels of the Bishops respecting their labors, &c.  It is not always that men can see what is good for themselves, and when a correct course is pointed out to them, they are liable to misconstrue the motives which prompt the advice, and to go in opposition to it.  All this ignorance has to be contended with now.  The people will not be brought to understand these things as they should all at once.  It will take time to bring them to such a condition.  But there are some who are now prepared to hearken to the counsel of their Bishops.  They will accept it and strive to carry it out with pleasure.  And their examples will have a powerful influence with their neighbors.  The Bishops have authority; but if they never wield it and suffer it to lie dormant, it is as though they were destitute of it.  When they commence to exercise it judiciously they, themselves, will be surprised at the results.”  (“Bishops and Their Duties,” DN 17(13):98, 6 May, 1868)

12 May:  Relief Society:  Sr. Leaver ORDAINED Presidentess.

“Special Meeting of the Female Relief Society of the 8th Ward–most of whom were present.  Bp. Sheets remarked that we had met to further complete the organization of the Sisters, so as to be more effective.  Their labors had been very much appreciated.  Sister [Eliza R.] Snow felt thankful for the opportunity of being present.  Had heard of the good works of the sisters of this ward.  Was glad the sisters had a chance of doing good.  Was present at the first organization of the sisters by Pres’t Joseph Smith.  Read the minutes of the first meeting.  Asked if all the sisters were satisfied with each other.  The object was to sustain virtue and good works and take responsibility from the brethren.  Remarked that the former minutes gave them an idea of the first organization of the Society.  The Sisters should make themselves honorable and find work for the poor and save souls.  Without union all would be fruitless, because the spirit of the Lord dwelt only where there was unity.  Our Sisters feel diffident, but they must launch out because the Priesthood rules, and if they want us to move all will be right.  Keep to the spirit of the Bishop and his Council.  This Society must act as Mothers in Israel.  Take those who are backward by the hand, and help them along.  In visiting act as the Teachers do.  Feel after the Sisters and encourage them in their trials, and be saints indeed, wholly devoted to the cause of God and his Kingdom.

Sr. Zina Young felt glad that she had been privileged to be a member of the former Society, and showed what a blessing the society was to the afflicted.

Sr. Leaver felt glad that the Sisters had come to visit us, and hoped to profit by the instruction given.

Bp. Sheets was delighted with the organization as made by the Prophet Joseph.  Felt glad that we had come so near.  This Society is to be governed by the Priesthood, the Bishop and his Council, and then all would be right.  All was subject to those above them, and if all were directed by the same Spirit, then all would be one.  Showed how the sisters by being united help the poor, and the emigrants when they come.  The Sisters were actually sympathetic, but they must use judgment in administering to the wants of the people, for they will find those who are impostors.  Still it is better to assist many unworthy ones than miss one good one.  Put those who are not worthy at work, also teach your families to be frugal and economical, obedient to their husbands, and keep every law that you may inherit the blessings of your husbands.  Counselled them as a Society to be economical so that when the poor come in they can be helped.  Wished the Society to organize out of the elements around, and add to by turning the means you have so as to make more.  Get straw, wool and other articles, and let the poor make it up, and dispose of it so as to add to your fund all the time.

Sister Snow remarked that the Bishop’s words were good and words of wisdom, urged the Sisters to study them.  Said the thoughts of the Sisters in future would be upon subjects of utility.  She had found out by experience that those that begged were not always the most needy.  Spoke of the fashions, and said we acted sinful in imitating the ways of the wicked.  Said we ought to dress so that our leaders will be satisfied, then all will be right.  Counselled the Saints to sustain the Presidentess and her Councillors.

Sister Leaver was reappointed Presidentess and she selected Sister Sarah A. Needham as 1st and Hannah Stan as 2nd Councillors.  Sister Mary Ann Leaver was ordained Presidentess of the Society by Bp. E. F. Sheets.  Sister Sarah A. Needham was ordained Councillor by Cr. J. D. T. McAllister, and Sister Hannah Stan was ordained Councillor by Bp. E. F. Sheets.  Remarks were then made by Cr. McAllister & Sister Leaver and meeting dismissed by Cr. J. D. T. McAllister.”  (8th Ward Minutes, 12 May, 1868)

21 May:  Teachers’ Court.

[Teachers Meeting]  “The case of Br. J. Cherrington & Sister Leaman was taken up and both being present, Br. Cherrington gave his reason for not giving up the Deed of the house and lot.  The decisions of the Teachers who had heretofore acted in the case were read, and on motion it was carried unanimously that the council hold on to the Deeds untill the matter was decided.  Br. McAllister spoke on the subject and was very strong in his remarks, showing that confidence was entirely lost in each other.  The council decided that the Deeds did not belong to Br. Cherrington and that he should restore all that he had taken from Sister Leaman.”  (8th Ward Minutes, 21 May, 1868)

14 Jun.:  Peter, James and John gave Joseph Apostleship.

“But God did afterwards give the authority to baptize and build up His Church.  How?  By sending angels from Heaven who, themselves, had the power to ordain persons to be Apostles.  An individual who does this must hold the Apostleship himself; no other being would have authority.  Whom did the Lord send to restore the Apostleship again to earth, and to confer it on Joseph Smith?  No less personages than Peter, James and John, who were with Jesus when he was transfigured in the mount, who then heard the voice of the Father.  These persons who held the keys of the Kingdom of God, and had power to administer its ordinances, laid their hands on this great modern Prophet that he might be filled with the Holy Ghost.

Again, did this Church arise according to the wisdom, power and understanding of men?  No; God gave commandment in relation to it, and pointed out the day on which it was to be organized.  And according to this commandment and revelation it was organized with six members on the 6th of April, 1830.”  (Orson Pratt, 14 Jun., 1868; JD 12:252)

19 Sep.:  Rules for School of the Prophets.

“The School of the Prophets met as usual in Salt Lake City.  Orson Pratt, Geo. B. Wallace, Geo. D. Watt, Edwin D. Woolley and Amos Fielding spoke.  By direction of Geo. A. Smith the rules of this class were read and a copy of them filed.  They are as follows:


1st. All members must be at the School punctually at the hour appointed, unless excused by the President, or can afterwards show good and sufficient reasons for their absence.

2nd. They must not take the name of the Deity in vain, nor speak lightly of His character.

3rd. They must observe and keep the ‘Word of Wisdom,’ according to the spirit and meaning thereof.

4th. They must pray with their families evening and morning and also attend to secret prayer.

5th. They must provide for their families and not abuse them, nor be quarrelsome with, or speak evil of each other or their neighbors.

6th. They are required to observe personal cleanliness, and must preserve themselves in all chastity by refraining from adultery, whoredom, and lust.

7th. They must not go after hay, go to the canyons, nor hunt their animals, nor perform any other labor on the Sabbath day, but must rest and attend meeting in the Tabernacle, in their wards, and the Fast Day meetings, and observe the Fast days, and make their offering to the poor on those days.

8th. They must pay their tithing.

9th. If any member of this school has any difficulty with another member, he must go and be reconciled with him before attending the school.

10th.They must not find fault with, nor rebuke any of the members of the School, this being the province of the President only.

11th.In all matters, their dealings should be as much as possible with those in full fellowship in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, but they must not deal with their enemies, and in all their dealings, conduct and conversation, they must strive to do as they should be done by.

12th.They should not hereafter, incur any debt beyond their means for paying as they agree, and must honestly pay their debts, already incurred, if they have the means wherewith to do so.

13th.That which is not their own, they must not take.

14th.That which they borrow they must return according to promise, and that which they find they must not appropriate to their own use, but seek to return it to its lawful owner, and if the owner cannot be found, it must be deposited in the place designated for lost property.

15th.They must not let down their bars, open their gate, nor make gaps in their fences, through which their animals can pass to the injury of their neighbors; neither must they let down his bars, or fence, or open his gate, to let their animals trespass upon him, and in all cases they must pay for the damage done by their animals.

16th.No member of this School has the privilege of inviting his friends to attend, without being permitted to do so by the President.

17th.Whatever passes in the School must be preserved inviolate.”

(JH 19 Sep., 1868)

3 Oct.:  Those who deal with outsiders to be cut off.

“At the school of the prophets Pres. Brigham Young, Elders Geo. A. Smith and Geo. Q. Cannon preached on sustaining the brethren, and letting outsiders alone.

The president and school voted that those who dealt with outsiders should be cut off from the Church.  The president declared that he had tried to control the merchants, but could not do it; he said they would go to hell, if they did not turn a short corner.”  (JH 3 Oct., 1868)

23 Nov.:  Ad Hoc High Councilors.

“There being several important cases to be tried before the High Council, and the majority of the Council being absent working on the railroad, on missions, etc., a number of brethren were ordained to act as High Councillors, whenever called upon for that purpose.”  (JH 23 Nov., 1868)